Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010 is the eighth round survey to be conducted in Tanzania, it is the latest survey to be conducted in Tanzania, The first one was the 1991-92 TDHS, which was followed by the Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey (TKAPS) in 1994, the 1996 TDHS, the 1999 Tanzania Reproductive and Child Health Survey (TRCHS), the 2003-04 Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey (THIS), TDHS 2004-2005 and the 2007-08 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey (THMIS).
The principal objective of the 2010 TDHS is to collect data on household characteristics, fertility levels and preferences, awareness and use of family planning methods, childhood and adult mortality, maternal and child health, breastfeeding practices, antenatal care, childhood immunisation and diseases, nutritional status of young children and women, malaria prevention and treatment, women’s status, female circumcision, sexual activity, knowledge and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS, and prevalence of domestic violence.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Household and Individual (Women and Men)
VERSION 1 ( Public use Document Web Dessemination)
- HOUSEHOLD: Identification,Interviwer visits, Household Schedules, Household Characteristics, (Weight, Height, haemoglobin, Vitamin A and Iron for Children 0 - 5 years), (Weight, Height, haemoglobin, Vitamin A , Iron and Urinary Iodine for women age 15 - 49).
- WOMEN: Identification,Interviwer visits, Contraception, Pregnancy and Postnatal Care, Child and Immunization and Health and Child's and Women Nutrition, Marriage and Sexual Activity, Fertility Preferences, Husband's background and Women work, HIV/ AIDS, Domestic Violence Module, Maternal Mortality and Fistula.
- MEN: Identification,Interviwer visits, Respondent's background, Reproduction, Contraception, Marriage and Sexual Activity, Employment and Gender Roles and HIV/AIDS.
Infant and child mortality
Maternal and child health
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged 15-49 years resident in the household, and all children under age 5 resident in the household.
Producers and sponsors
National bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Finance
Office of Chief Goverment Statistician- Zanzibar (OCGS)
The Government of Zanzibar
United States Agency for International Development
The United Nations Children’s Fund
United Nations Population Fund
UNITED NATIONS - Tanzania Delivering as One
World Health Organization
Ministry of Finance - Tanzania
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
World Food Programme
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre
Department for International Development
United Nations Development Programme
the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MHSW)
the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS)
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TFNC)
The 2010 TDHS sample was designed to provide estimates for the entire country, for urban and rural areas in the Mainland, and for Zanzibar. For specific indicators such as contraceptive use, the sample design allowed the estimation of indicators for each of the then 26 regions.
To estimate geographic differentials for certain demographic indicators, the regions of mainland Tanzania were collapsed into seven geographic zones. Although these are not official administrative zones, this classification is used by the Reproductive and Child Health Section of the MoHSW. Zones were used in each geographic area in order to have a relatively large number of cases and a reduced sampling error. It should be noted that the zones, which are defined below, differ slightly from the zones used in the 1991-92 and 1996 TDHS reports but are the same as those in the 2004-05 TDHS and the 2007-08 THMIS.
Western: Tabora, Shinyanga, Kigoma
Northern: Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Arusha, Manyara
Central: Dodoma, Singida
Southern Highlands: Mbeya, Iringa, Rukwa
Lake: Kagera, Mwanza, Mara
Eastern: Dar es Salaam, Pwani, Morogoro
Southern: Lindi, Mtwara, Ruvuma
Zanzibar: Unguja North, Unguja South, Town West, Pemba North, Pemba South
A representative probability sample of 10,300 households was selected for the 2010 TDHS. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 475 clusters were selected from a list of enumeration areas in the 2002 Population and Housing Census. Twenty-five sample points were selected in Dar es Salaam, and 18 were selected in each of the other twenty regions in mainland Tanzania. In Zanzibar, 18 clusters were selected in each region for a total of 90 sample points.
In the second stage, a complete household listing was carried out in all selected clusters between July and August 2009. Households were then systematically selected for participation in the survey. Twenty-two households were selected from each of the clusters in all regions, except for Dar es Salaam where 16 households were selected.
All women age 15-49 who were either permanent residents in the households included in the 2010 TDHS sample or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. In a subsample of one-third of all the households selected for the survey, all men age 15-49 were eligible to be interviewed if they were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey.
A total of 10,300 households were selected for the sample, of which 9,741 were found to be occupied during data collection. The shortfall occurred mainly because structures were vacant or destroyed. Of the 9,741 existing households, 9,623 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent.
In the interviewed households, 10,522 women were identified for individual interview; complete interviews were conducted with 10,139 women, yielding a response rate of 96 percent. Of the 2,770 eligible men identified in the subsample of households selected, 91 percent were successfully interviewed.
The principal reason for nonresponse among eligible women and men was the failure to find them at home despite repeated visits to the household. The lower response rate for men reflects the more frequent and longer absences of men from households.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data were collected by 14 teams, 11 in Mainland and 3 in Zanzibar.Each team consists of four female interviewers, one male interviewer, a supervisor, a field editor, and a driver.The field editor and supervisor were responsible for reviewing all questionnaires for completeness, quality, and consistency before the team's departure from the cluster.
Fieldwork supervision was also coordinated at NBS headquarters and at the Office of the Chief Government Statistician-Zanzibar. Seven NBS senior staff formed the Quality Control team. They periodically visited teams to review their work and monitor data quality. Quality control personnel also independently re-interviewed certain households after the team had left a cluster. Close contact between NBS headquarters and the data collection teams was maintained using cell phones. ICF Macro staff participated in field supervision of interviews and biomarker collection.
Data Collection Notes
All elements of the survey were pretested prior to the survey. Eleven women and five men participated in the pretest training conducted in Morogoro from 23 July 23 to 5 August 2009. Trainers were staff from NBS, the Zanzibar OCGS, and ICF Macro. Pretest fieldwork was conducted 2-5 August 2009, in Bigwa and Saba Saba wards.
A total of 102 Household Questionnaires, 98 Women’s Questionnaires, and 52 Men’s Questionnaires were completed.
Field staff training took place between 9 November 2009 and 5 December 2009. A total of 59 female nurses, 15 male nurses, 17 field editors, and 14 supervisors were trained. Supervisors and editors were also given specialized training to enable them to perform their duties.
Data collection began on 19 December 2009 and was completed on 23 May 2010.
National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Finance
Office of the Chief Government Statistician
Three questionnaires were used for the 2010 TDHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Women’s Questionnaire, and the Men’s Questionnaire. The content of these questionnaires was based on the model questionnaires developed by the MEASURE DHS programme. To reflect relevant issues in population and health in Tanzania, the questionnaires were adapted. Contributions were solicited from various stakeholders representing government ministries and agencies, nongovernmental organisations,
and international donors. The final drafts of the questionnaires were discussed at a stakeholders’ meeting organised by the NBS. The adapted questionnaires were translated from English into Kiswahili and pretested from 23 July 2009 to 5 August 2009.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. For children under age 18, survival status of the parents was determined. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor of the house, ownership of various durable goods, and ownership and use of mosquito nets. Another use of the Household Questionnaire was to identify the woman who was eligible to be interviewed with the domestic violence module.
The Household Questionnaire was also used to record height, weight, and haemoglobin measurements of women age 15-49 and children under age 5, household use of cooking salt fortified with iodine, response to requests for blood samples to measure vitamin A and iron in women and children, and whether salt and urine samples were provided.
The Women’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics:
• Background characteristics (e.g., education, residential history, media exposure)
• Birth history and childhood mortality
• Pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal care
• Knowledge and use of family planning methods
• Infant feeding practices, including patterns of breastfeeding
• Fertility preferences
• Episodes of childhood illness and responses to illness, with a focus on treatment of fevers in the two weeks prior to the survey
• Vaccinations and childhood illnesses
• Marriage and sexual activity
• Husband’s background and women’s work status
• Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour related to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
• Domestic violence
• Female genital cutting
• Adult mortality, including maternal mortality
• Fistula of the reproductive and urinary tracts
• Other health issues, including knowledge of tuberculosis and medical injections
The Men’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-49 living in every third household in the 2010 TDHS sample. The Men’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information as the Women’s Questionnaire, but it was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history, questions on maternal and child health or nutrition, questions about fistula, or questions about siblings for the calculation of maternal mortality.
Field teams were advised of problems detected during the data entry to improve performance with the use of field check tables. The process of office editing and data processing was initiated on 25 January 2010 and completed on 15 June 2010.
The DBS, urine, and salt samples received from the field were logged in at NBS, checked, and delivered to TFNC to be tested. The processing of DBS samples for the vitamin A testing was handled by three laboratory technicians, while anaemia testing was handled by three laboratory technicians, and iodine testing was done by four laboratory technicians. The samples were logged into the CSPro Test Tracking System (CHTTS) database, and each was given a laboratory number.
Estimates of Sampling Error
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
However, the 2010 TDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulas. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2010 TDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module. This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics, such as fertility and mortality rates.
Details of the sampling errors are presented in the sampling errors appendix ( APPENDIX B) to the DHS 2010 report presented in the external resources.
Data quality checks were done to ensure that the data met required standards.
Confidentiality of respodents is guaranteed by section 20 of Tanzania Statistics act number 1 of 2002
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have formally agree:
1.All identifying information such as the name and address of respondent has been removed; and
2.The information is disclosed in a manner that is not likely to enable the identification of the particular person or undertaking or business to which it relates.
3.Not attempt to identify any particular person or undertaking or business;
4.Use of information for research or statistically purpose only;
5.Not to disclose the information to any other person, organization
6.When required by the Director General, return all documents made available to him to the Director General;
7.Comply with the directions given by the Director General relating to the records.
8.Every person involved in the research or statistical project for which information is disclosed pursuant to this section shall make the declaration of secrecy set out in the first schedule.
Tanzania NBS considered three levels of accessibility:
1) Public use files, accessible by all
2) Licensed datasets, accessible under certain conditions
3) Datasets only accessible on location, for certain datasets
The dataset are accessible to all for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1.The data and other material will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organization without the written agreement of the National Bureau of Statistics.
2.The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3.No attempt will be made to produce links among dataset provided by the National Bureau of Statistics, or among data from the (National Bureau of Statistics) and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations
4.No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identify of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the National Bureau of Statistics.
5.Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
"National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (http://www.nbs.go.tz) [Tanzania] and ICF Macro. 2011(http://www.measuredhs.com). Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania"
"The user of the data should acknowledge that, National Bureau of Statistics is the original collector of the data , the authorised distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences without a written agreement from the National Bureau of Statistics"